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              首页»Java WEB»史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

              史上最全最强SpringMVC详细示例实战教程

              来源:Sunnier 发布时间:2015-06-22 阅读次数:

               一、SpringMVC基础入门,创建一个HelloWorld程序

                1.首先,导入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

                2.添加Web.xml配置文件中关于SpringMVC的配置

                <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
                <servlet>
                    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
                    <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
                    <init-param>
                          <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
                          <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
                      </init-param>
                      <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
                </servlet>
              
                <servlet-mapping>
                    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
                    <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
                </servlet-mapping>

                3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

              <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
              <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
                  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
                  xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
                  xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
                  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    
              
                  <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
                  <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>
              
                  <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
                  <mvc:default-servlet-handler />
              
                  <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
                  <mvc:annotation-driven />
                  
                  <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
                  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
                          id="internalResourceViewResolver">
                      <!-- 前缀 -->
                      <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
                      <!-- 后缀 -->
                      <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
                  </bean>
              </beans>

                4.在WEB-INF文件夹下创建名为jsp的文件夹,用?#21019;?#25918;jsp视图。创建一个hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

                5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

                6.编写Controller代码

              @Controller
              @RequestMapping("/mvc")
              public class mvcController {
              
                  @RequestMapping("/hello")
                  public String hello(){        
                      return "hello";
                  }
              }

                7.启动服务器,键入 http://localhost:8080/项目名/mvc/hello

               二、配置解析

                1.Dispatcherservlet

                DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。拦截匹配的请求,Servlet拦截匹配规则要自已定义,把拦截下来的请求,依据相应的规则分发到目标Controller?#21019;?#29702;,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

                2.InternalResourceViewResolver

                视图名称解析器

                3.以上出现的注解

                @Controller 负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

                @RequestMapping 注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

               三、SpringMVC常用注解

                @Controller

                负责注册一个bean 到spring 上下文中

                @RequestMapping

                注解为控制器指定可以处理哪些 URL 请求

                @RequestBody

                该注解用于读取Request请求的body部分数据,使用系统默认配置的HttpMessageConverter进行解析,然后把相应的数据绑定到要返回的对象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的对象数据绑定到 controller中方法的参数上

                @ResponseBody

                该注解用于将Controller的方法返回的对象,通过?#23454;?#30340;HttpMessageConverter转换为指定格式后,写入到Response对象的body数据区

                @ModelAttribute    

                在方法定义上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在调用目标处理方法前,会先逐个调用在方法级上标注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

                在方法的入参前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以从隐含对象中获取隐含的模型数据中获取对象,再将请求参数 –绑定到对象中,再传入入参将方法入参对象添加到模型中 

                @RequestParam 

                在处理方法入参处使用 @RequestParam 可以把请求参 数传递给请求方法

                @PathVariable

                绑定 URL 占位符到入参

                @ExceptionHandler

                注解到方法上,出现异常时会执行该方法

                @ControllerAdvice

                使一个Contoller成为全局的异常处理类,类中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以处理所有Controller发生的异常

               四、自动匹配参数

                //match automatically
                @RequestMapping("/person")
                public String toPerson(String name,double age){
                    System.out.println(name+" "+age);
                    return "hello";
                }

               五、自动装箱

                1.编写一个Person实体类

              package test.SpringMVC.model;
              
              public class Person {
                  public String getName() {
                      return name;
                  }
                  public void setName(String name) {
                      this.name = name;
                  }
                  public int getAge() {
                      return age;
                  }
                  public void setAge(int age) {
                      this.age = age;
                  }
                  private String name;
                  private int age;
                  
              }

                2.在Controller里编写方法

                //boxing automatically
                @RequestMapping("/person1")
                public String toPerson(Person p){
                    System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
                    return "hello";
                }

               六、使用InitBinder?#21019;?#29702;Date类型的参数

               //the parameter was converted in initBinder
               @RequestMapping("/date")
               public String date(Date date){
                   System.out.println(date);
                   return "hello";
               }
                  
               //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
               @InitBinder
               public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
                   binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
                           true));
               }

               七、向前台传递参数

               //pass the parameters to front-end
               @RequestMapping("/show")
               public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
                   Person p =new Person();
                   map.put("p", p);
                   p.setAge(20);
                   p.setName("jayjay");
                   return "show";
               }

                前台可在Request域中取到"p"

               八、使用Ajax调用

               //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
               @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
               public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
                   pw.write("hello,"+name);        
               }
               @RequestMapping("/name")
               public String sayHello(){
                   return "name";
               }

                前台用下面的Jquery代码调用

               $(function(){
                   $("#btn").click(function(){
                      $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
                           alert(data);
                       });
                   });
               });

               九、在Controller中使用redirect方式处理请求

                //redirect 
                @RequestMapping("/redirect")
                public String redirect(){
                    return "redirect:hello";
                }

               十、文件上传

                1.需要导入两个jar包

                2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

                <!-- upload settings -->
                <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
                    <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
                </bean>

                3.方法代码

                  @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
                  public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
                      MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
                      MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
                      String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
                      SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
                      FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                              "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
                      fos.write(file.getBytes());
                      fos.flush();
                      fos.close();
                      
                      return "hello";
                  }

                4.前台form表单

                 <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
                     <input type="file" name="file"><br>
                     <input type="submit" value="submit">
                 </form>

               十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定参数的name

              @Controller
              @RequestMapping("/test")
              public class mvcController1 {
                  @RequestMapping(value="/param")
                  public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
                          @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
                      System.out.println(id+" "+name);
                      return "/hello";
                  }    
              }

               十二、RESTFul风格的SringMVC

                1.RestController

              @Controller
              @RequestMapping("/rest")
              public class RestController {
                  @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
                  public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                      System.out.println("get"+id);
                      return "/hello";
                  }
                  
                  @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
                  public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                      System.out.println("post"+id);
                      return "/hello";
                  }
                  
                  @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
                  public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                      System.out.println("put"+id);
                      return "/hello";
                  }
                  
                  @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
                  public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
                      System.out.println("delete"+id);
                      return "/hello";
                  }
                  
              }

                2.form表单发送put和delete请求

                在web.xml中配置

                <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
                <filter>
                    <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
                    <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
                </filter>
                <filter-mapping>
                    <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
                    <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
                </filter-mapping>

                在前台可以用以下代码产生请求

                  <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                      <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
                      <input type="submit" value="put">
                  </form>
                  
                  <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                      <input type="submit" value="post">
                  </form>
                  
                  <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
                      <input type="submit" value="get">
                  </form>
                  
                  <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
                      <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
                      <input type="submit" value="delete">
                  </form>

               十三、返回json格式的字符串

                1.导入以下jar包

                2.方法代码

              @Controller
              @RequestMapping("/json")
              public class jsonController {
                  
                  @ResponseBody
                  @RequestMapping("/user")
                  public  User get(){
                      User u = new User();
                      u.setId(1);
                      u.setName("jayjay");
                      u.setBirth(new Date());
                      return u;
                  }
              }

               十四、异常的处理

                1.处理局部异常(Controller内)

               @ExceptionHandler
               public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
                   ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
                   mv.addObject("exception", ex);
                   System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
                   return mv;
               }
                  
               @RequestMapping("/error")
               public String error(){
                   int i = 5/0;
                   return "hello";
               }

                2.处理全局异常(所有Controller)

              @ControllerAdvice
              public class testControllerAdvice {
                  @ExceptionHandler
                  public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
                      ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
                      mv.addObject("exception", ex);
                      System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
                      return mv;
                  }
              }

                3.另一种处理全局异常的方法

                在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

                <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
                <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
                    <property name="exceptionMappings">
                        <props>
                            <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
                        </props>
                    </property>
                </bean>

                error是出错页面

               十五、设置一个自定义拦截器

                1.创建一个MyInterceptor类,并实现HandlerInterceptor接口

              public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
              
                  @Override
                  public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
                          HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
                          throws Exception {
                      System.out.println("afterCompletion");
                  }
              
                  @Override
                  public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                          Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
                      System.out.println("postHandle");
                  }
              
                  @Override
                  public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
                          Object arg2) throws Exception {
                      System.out.println("preHandle");
                      return true;
                  }
              
              }

                2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

                  <!-- interceptor setting -->
                  <mvc:interceptors>
                      <mvc:interceptor>
                          <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
                          <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
                      </mvc:interceptor>        
                  </mvc:interceptors>

                3.拦截器执行顺序

               十六、表单的验证(使用Hibernate-validate)及国际化

                1.导入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

              (未选中不用导入)

                2.编写实体类User并加上验证注解

              public class User {
                  public int getId() {
                      return id;
                  }
                  public void setId(int id) {
                      this.id = id;
                  }
                  public String getName() {
                      return name;
                  }
                  public void setName(String name) {
                      this.name = name;
                  }
                  public Date getBirth() {
                      return birth;
                  }
                  public void setBirth(Date birth) {
                      this.birth = birth;
                  }
                  @Override
                  public String toString() {
                      return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
                  }    
                  private int id;
                  @NotEmpty
                  private String name;
              
                  @Past
                  @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
                  private Date birth;
              }

                ps:@Past表示时间必须是一个过去值

                3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表单

                  <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
                      id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
                      name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
                      birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
                      <input type="submit" value="submit">
                  </form:form> 

                ps:path对应name

                4.Controller?#20889;?#30721;

              @Controller
              @RequestMapping("/form")
              public class formController {
                  @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
                  public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
                      if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
                          return "addUser";
                      }
                      return "showUser";
                  }
                  
                  @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
                  public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
                      map.put("user",new User());
                      return "addUser";
                  }
              }

                ps:

                1.因为jsp中使用了modelAttribute属性,所以必须在request域中有一个"user".

                [email protected] 表示按照在实体上标记的注解验证参数

                3.返回到原页面错误信息回回显,表单也会回显

                5.错误信息自定义

                在src目录下添加locale.properties

              NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
              Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
              DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
              typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
              typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

                在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

                  <!-- configure the locale resource -->
                  <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
                      <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
                  </bean>

                6.国际化显示

                在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

              username=账号
              password=密码

                locale.properties中添加

              username=user name
              password=password

                创建一个locale.jsp

                <body>
                  <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
                  <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
                </body>

                在SpringMVC中配置

                  <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
                  <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

                让locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接访问

                最后,访问locale.jsp,切换浏览器语言,能看到账号和密码的语言也切换了

               十七、压轴大戏--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

                1.创建一个test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用来演示整合,并创建各类

                2.User实体类

              public class User {
                  public int getId() {
                      return id;
                  }
                  public void setId(int id) {
                      this.id = id;
                  }
                  public String getName() {
                      return name;
                  }
                  public void setName(String name) {
                      this.name = name;
                  }
                  public Date getBirth() {
                      return birth;
                  }
                  public void setBirth(Date birth) {
                      this.birth = birth;
                  }
                  @Override
                  public String toString() {
                      return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
                  }    
                  private int id;
                  @NotEmpty
                  private String name;
              
                  @Past
                  @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
                  private Date birth;
              }

                3.UserService类

              @Component
              public class UserService {
                  public UserService(){
                      System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
                  }
                  
                  public void save(){
                      System.out.println("save");
                  }
              }

                4.UserController

              @Controller
              @RequestMapping("/integrate")
              public class UserController {
                  @Autowired
                  private UserService userService;
                  
                  @RequestMapping("/user")
                  public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
                      System.out.println(u);
                      userService.save();
                      return "hello";
                  }
              }

                5.Spring配置文件

                在src目录下创建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

              <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
              <beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
                  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
                  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
                      http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
                      "
                      xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
                      xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
                      xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
                      >
                  <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
                      <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                          expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
                      <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
                          expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
                  </context:component-scan>
                  
              </beans>

                在Web.xml中添加配置

                <!-- configure the springIOC -->
                <listener>
                    <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
                </listener>
                <context-param>  
                  <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
                  <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
                </context-param>

                6.在SpringMVC中进行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC对同一个对象的管理重合

              <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
                  <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
                      <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                          expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
                      <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
                          expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
                  </context:component-scan>

               十八、SpringMVC详细运行流程图

               十九、SpringMVC与struts2的区别

                1、springmvc基于方法开发?#27169;瑂truts2基于类开发的。springmvc将url和controller里的方法?#25104;洹S成?#25104;功后springmvc生成一个Handler对象,对象中只包括了一个method。方法执行结束,形参数据销毁。springmvc的controller开发类似web service开发。

                2、springmvc可以进行单例开发,并且建议使用单例开发,struts2通过类的成员变量接收参数,无法使用单例,只能使用多例。

                3、经过实际测试,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts标签,如果使用struts建议使用jstl。

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